The war that started with Hamas’ attack on Israel on October 7 is becoming dire day by day. There have been more than 7 thousand deaths in Gaza and about 1.5 thousand people in Israel have been killed. In fact, there has been a dispute between Jews and Palestinian Muslims since Israel came into existence in 1948. But today we are telling you how after the murder of an officer of German dictator Hitler, havoc was wreaked on the Jews and how they were expelled from Germany.
It was October 1938, when approximately 17,000 Polish Jews living in Nazi Germany were arrested and deported from Germany. This action on the Jews was named Nazi Polenaction i.e. ‘Polish Action’. This deportation was ordered by Reinhard Heydrich, an officer of the SS forces of German dictator Adolf Hitler and the head of the Gestapo. Initially, Poland refused to give shelter to these deported Jews, so they had to live in temporary camps on the Germany-Poland border. Most of these 17,000 expelled Jews lived in refugee camps on the border for almost a year. Polenaction refugees did not gain access to the interior of Poland until just before the German invasion of Poland in 1939.
From 1935 to 1938, Jews living in Germany were stripped of most of their civil rights under the Nuremberg Laws and faced persecution by the Hitler regime. According to the census conducted in 1933, more than 57 percent of the foreign Jews living in Germany were Polish. At that time most of the countries were going through economic recession. In such a situation, the Polish government, fearing the influx of Jews due to the Reich Citizenship Law, took drastic measures to isolate its Jewish citizens abroad.
Refusal to give stamps to Jews
On October 6, 1938, the Polish government issued an ordinance requiring Polish citizens living outside Poland to obtain an endorsement stamp on their passports before October 30. Then when thousands of Polish Jews in Germany presented their passports at Polish consular offices, they were refused the necessary stamps citing various reasons. By refusing to issue stamps to Jews, the Polish government made it clear that it had no interest in accepting Jews from the Reich. Even those who were Polish citizens were refused asylum.
This attitude of Poland angered the German government. Then in 1938, Nazi policy regarding Jews focused on emigration from the Reich rather than mass extermination during the Second World War. Nazi officials saw the Polish decree as an obstacle to their efforts to force Jewish emigration.
In a letter to Reich Chancellery Chief Hans Lammers, SS Obergruppenführer Werner Best wrote, “On 6 October 1938, the Polish government issued a decree and published on 15 October, requiring all passports to remain valid to have a Must have control stamp. Passports that do not bear this stamp can no longer be used to enter Polish territory. With this order the Polish government clearly wants to make it impossible for Polish Jews living abroad – especially those living in Germany – to return to Poland. “This meant that approximately 70,000 Polish Jews from the Reich area would have to be permanently tolerated in Germany.”
17,000 Polish Jews arrested
Fearing the possibility of thousands of Polish Jews being unable to legally immigrate from the Reich, the German government felt it had to take action. As Chief of the Gestapo, on 26 October Heydrich ordered that Polish Jews be expelled from the Reich. From October 27 to October 29, the day before the Polish decree regarding passports went into effect, German authorities arrested approximately 17,000 Polish Jews and revoked their permits to reside in Germany. The Gestapo was able to easily trace those arrested through registration data and census files.
After the arrests, thousands of Polish Jews were stripped of all their personal property and wealth. They were forced onto trains, and these trains brought these people to the Germany-Poland border. The authorities at the Polish border were at first overjoyed by the sudden influx of these people and on the first day of the expulsion they allowed thousands of Polish Jews to enter Poland. However, the Polish government responded quickly by closing its borders and refusing to grant asylum to Jews coming from Germany, but 1,300 Polish Jews who entered Poland on the first day were granted asylum in the Polish Consulate in the city of Leipzig. Had found it.
Jews were deported
By October 30, thousands of homeless Jews were living in no-man’s land near the Germany–Poland border. Historians believe that 4,000 to 6,000 Jews were deported to the southern cities of Bytom (then Beuthen) and Katowice, 1,500 to the northern city of Choznice, and 8,000 to the city of Zbyszcz. A large refugee camp was built in Jabjin to provide shelter to the deported people. For several months, Jewish refugees in Zabjin slept in poorly constructed barracks with very few amenities. The seriousness of the conditions inside the camp was witnessed by the Polish historian Emanuel Ringelblum, who in a letter to a colleague described the despair of the refugees living in the camp.
Emanuel wrote, “I do not think that any Jewish community has ever experienced an expulsion as brutal and merciless as this one. The future has been imagined in gloomy terms. People in the camp have received notices that they have lost their Polish citizenship. Jabzin became a symbol of the defenselessness of Polish Jews. “The Jews have been horribly humiliated, and the result is that we are all affected by this terrible tragedy.”
Jewish property was destroyed in the Reich area.
Jabzin was a huge moral blow to the Jewish population of Poland. Sendel Grinzpan’s family was among those deported from Hanover, Germany on October 27. Grynzpan told that on Thursday 27 October 1938, the police came to his house and asked him to go to the nearest border with his Polish passport. When they reached the border, hundreds of people were waiting for further government instructions. Police informed the crowd that they would have to sign papers and produce their passports. After doing so, they were put into police vans and cars, then taken to a railway station. On Saturday 29 October, the frightened Grinzpan family reached Jabjin in great confusion.
On October 31, Sandel Gringpan’s daughter Berta somehow sent a post card from Jabzin to her brother Herschel Gringpan in Paris, and this post card reached Herschel Gringpan, in which Berta described the cruelty and tragedy of her family’s forced expulsion from Germany. Wrote about. Horrified, frightened, and troubled by the plight of his family and thousands of other Polish Jews, Herschel Grynzpan read the letter and swore revenge. On November 7, Herschel purchased a pistol and went to the German Embassy in Paris, where he shot and killed the Reich’s First Secretary, Ernst vom Rath.
Hitler’s Nazi regime was stunned by the assassination of Vom Rath. The result was that on November 9 and 10, Jewish businesses, properties and their temples and synagogues were destroyed, burned and looted throughout the Reich. Vom Rath’s murder was used by the Nazis as a pretext for persecution of Jews. The assassination of Ernst vom Rath, often referred to as Kristallnacht, is seen by historians as a key moment in the development of the Holocaust.
read this also- Heavy bombardment by Israeli army in Gaza, Hamas commander Assem Abu killed